What is the origin insertion and action of the achilles tendon? What is the origin insertion and action of the achilles tendon? .

What is the origin insertion and action of the achilles tendon?

Type Ii Accessory Navicular Treatment


Overview
An accessory navicular is an extra bone that is on the inner center arch of the foot. Up to 2.5% of individuals are born with the accessory navicular. Throughout early childhood, this condition is not noticed. However, in adolescence, when the accessory navicular begins to calcify, the bump on the inner aspect of the arch becomes noticed. For most, it is never symptomatic. However, for some, there is some type of injury, whether a twist, stumble, or fall, that makes the accessory navicular symptomatic.

Accessory Navicular Syndrome

What causes pain in the back of the heel?
An injury to the fibrous tissue connecting the two bones can cause something similar to a fracture. The injury allows movement to occur between the navicular and the accessory bone and is thought to be the cause of pain. The fibrous tissue is prone to poor healing and may continue to cause pain. Because the posterior tibial tendon attaches to the accessory navicular, it constantly pulls on the bone, creating even more motion between the fragments with each step.

Symptoms
The majority of people with an accessory navicular experience no symptoms, since, for the most part, the little extra bone simply isn?t large enough to cause problems. Unfortunately, some people lose on ?accessory navicular roulette,? and the bone begins to mess things up with the foot. These problems usually show up sometime in adolescence, when bones and cartilage in the body are settling into their final shapes (although occasionally people make it all the way through childhood, only to start experiencing discomfort and pain in adulthood).

Diagnosis
A foot and ankle surgeon can diagnose accessory navicular syndrome by conducting a physical exam. X-rays and MRIs may be taken to access the condition and confirm the diagnosis of accessory navicular.

Non Surgical Treatment
Treating accessory navicular syndrome is focused on relieving symptoms. Some treatment methods are Icing to reduce swelling. Immobilization with a cast or walking boot to reduce inflammation and promote healing. Medications to reduce pain and inflammation. Physical therapy to strengthen muscles. Orthotics to support the arch. Surgery may be needed to remove the accessory bone and reshape the area if other methods are not successful.

Accessory Navicular Syndrome

Surgical Treatment
If non-surgical treatment fails to relieve the symptoms of accessory navicular syndrome, surgery may be appropriate. Surgery may involve removing the accessory bone, reshaping the area, and repairing the posterior tibial tendon to improve its function. This extra bone is not needed for normal foot function.

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Accessory Ossicle Navicular Treatment


Overview
The accessory navicular (os navicularum or os tibiale externum) is an extra bone or piece of cartilage located on the inner side of the foot just above the arch. It is incorporated within the posterior tibial tendon, which attaches in this area. An accessory navicular is congenital (present at birth). It is not part of normal bone structure and therefore is not present in most people. People who have an accessory navicular often are unaware of the condition if it causes no problems. However, some people with this extra bone develop a painful condition known as accessory navicular syndrome when the bone and/or posterior tibial tendon are aggravated. Many people with accessory navicular syndrome also have flat feet (fallen arches). Having a flat foot puts more strain on the posterior tibial tendon, which can produce inflammation or irritation of the accessory navicular.

Accessory Navicular Syndrome

Causes
Let us see the reasons why the tendon or the bone would get aggravated. Ankle or foot sprain, irritation of the bone caused by footwear, overusing the foot, quite common in athletes and dancers. People born with this extra bone are also known develop flat feet which also adds to the strain on the posterior tibial tendon and lead to the syndrome.

Symptoms
Most people with an accessory navicular do not have symptoms because the bone is so small that it causes no harm, or only develop symptoms after a trauma such as a break or sprain. When symptoms are present they could be a visible bony prominence, pain and throbbing, inflammation and redness, and flat feet.

Diagnosis
To diagnose accessory navicular syndrome, the foot and ankle surgeon will ask about symptoms and examine the foot, looking for skin irritation or swelling. The doctor may press on the bony prominence to assess the area for discomfort. Foot structure, muscle strength, joint motion, and the way the patient walks may also be evaluated. X-rays are usually ordered to confirm the diagnosis. If there is ongoing pain or inflammation, an MRI or other advanced imaging tests may be used to further evaluate the condition.

Non Surgical Treatment
Treatment of the accessory navicular begins with rest, which may include activity modification or temporary immobilization in a boot or a brace. Once the inflammation subsides the foot needs to be supported. The support consists of a specially designed orthotic arch support. Occasionally, the orthotic will dig into the edge of the accessory navicular bone under the arch of the foot. This is very uncomfortable. For this reason the orthotic support needs to be carefully made. The orthotic support will help control (but not cure) the flat foot and will often decrease the inflammation on the navicular.

Accessory Navicular Syndrome

Surgical Treatment
Depending upon the severity the non operative or conservative treatment should be maintained for at least 4- 6 months before any surgical intervention. There are 2 surgeries that can be performed depending upon the condition and symptoms. First is simple surgical excision. In this generally the accessory navicular along with its prominence is removed. In this procedure, skin incision What is the tendon at the back of your ankle? made dorsally to the prominence of accessory navicular. Bone is removed to the point where the medial foot has no bony prominence over the navicular, between the head of the talus and first cuneiform. Symptoms are relieved in 90% of cases. Second is Kindler procedure. In this the ossicle and navicular prominence is excised as in simple excision but along with the posterior tibial tendon advancement. Posterior tibial tendon is split and advanced along the medial side of foot to provide support to longitudinal arch. After surgery 4 week short leg cast, well moulded into the arch with the foot plantigrade is applied. Partial weight bearing till the 8th week and later full weight bearing is allowed. When the cast is being removed can start building up the ROM to counter atrophy and other physical therapy treatment which include stretching and strengthening exercises.

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برچسب: How do I stretch my Achilles tendon?، How does Achilles tendonitis occur?، What is the tendon at the back of your ankle?،
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